|Volume 14, No 4||Pages:|
|2014 October-December||Articles: 8|
An efficient and practical method for the conversion of alcohols to their corresponding carboxylic acids and ketones via a ruthenium chloride-catalyzed oxidation process has been developed. The reaction proceeded under mild reaction condition using environmentally friendly oxone as a co-oxidant. Various alcohols were examined to provide the desired products in good yields.
Looking at the annals of humans, one can infer that some of the greatest thoughts and discoveries were often derided when first brought to public, resulting in the delay of the employment of many innovative contraptions and some even led to the lost of thousands of lives. The reasons for the dismissal of such pragmatic data can be vast. Some great thoughts might already be lost because of the existence of restrains. In this article, brief biographies of two great scientists are highlighted as examples to illuminate our point. Our point being the importance of free thinking, appropriate reasoning and even radical ideology, and the possible future of science from such singular mind. It has been concluded that we should not belittle others’ idea because what we believe is true can be far from right. Instead, we should encourage others to think beyond the box so that such seemingly ridiculous notions,
A comparative study of theoretical and experimental electronic properties and linear optical dielectric function of zinc blende structure of aluminium pnictides is presented by applying the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented in WIEN2k code. Results are presented for the band structures, for the density of states, and for the real and imaginary parts of the linear dielectric functions for photon energies up to 10 eV. The results are compared with other existing calculations and experimental data and agreement was found.
In order to understand the water quality of Tamdil, its physico-chemical parameters were analyzed for a period of one year, i.e. from October 2013 to September 2014. For detailed investigation, water quality attributes namely, water temperature(12.5°C-26.3°C), pH (6.6-7.4), turbidity (0.22 -10.4 NTU), acidity (3.2-13 mg/L), total alkalinity (32-107.2 mg/L), total hardness (26.8-50.4 mg/L), nitrate-N (0.02-0.82 mg/L), phosphate-P (0.02-0.53 mg/L), dissolved oxygen (4.4 -7.36 mg/L) and biological oxygen demand (0.029-1.2mg/L) were studied. The results reveal that there is a significant seasonal variation in physico-chemical attribute and the data in all parameters are within the prescribed limit of water quality standard laid down by various scientific agencies.
The effects of copper on the growth, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidants of the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum were studied. Growth behavior under different concentrations of Cu showed strong inhibition with growth rate of 50% reduced at 2.5 µM after 96 h of treatment. There were total inhibitions at 7.5 µM and 10 µM concentrations. Photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin and carotenoid contents decreased at the same extent after 96 h of Cu treatment and the inhibition was highest on phycocyanin content. Protein content was inhibited at the same pattern with photosynthetic pigments. Cu-induced lipid peroxidation was concentration and time dependent. Treatment with 10 µM Cu for 2 h resulted in 4.9 folds increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in comparison with the control. Similarly, 3.8 folds increased was observed after 5 h treatment with LC50 metal (2.5 µM Cu), compared to the control. The activities of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were strongly increased following the increase of Cu concentrations- they reached 159%, 202%, 172% and 179% above the control, respectively.
Photocurrents were calculated using initial state wavefunction obtained by solving one dimensional Schrödinger equation in terms of Greens function where the crystal potential is defined by Kronig-Penny δ-potential. Also a spatially dependent vector potential is used. This model is applied to the case of metals W and Be.
Zoologists do not lack a sense of humour. There are discreet and indiscreet evidences.