Urolithiasis is a condition in which stones are formed in the urinary tract and considered to be one of the most common urological disorders, longstanding medical illnesses and common public health problems. People in many parts of the world including north eastern states of India are now suffering from the stone diseases. Urinary stone is formed usually due to deposition of calcium, phosphates and oxalates which are a major health hazards. It has been reported that urolithiasis as a multifactorial recurrent disease, distributed worldwide in urban, rural, non-industrial and industrial regions with different chemical composition of analyzed stones in context to various risk factors. Besides diet, genetic factors are also reported to contribute in pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Better understanding of the various aspects of this disease including causative agents may provide an insight of this disorder to the researcher and common people in order to contain this disease. The epidemiology and various etiologic factors of urolithiasis are highlighted in this communication.