Volume 18, Issue 2, 2018 April-June

Volume 18, No 2 Pages:
2018 April-June Articles: 6

The saga of scrub typhus with a note on the outbreaks in Mizoram

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Scrub typhus is one the most important re-emerging infectious disease, and perhaps, the most important bacterial disease. Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, it is transmitted through the bite of mites belonging to the genus Leptotrombidium, in which the bacteria are obligate parasites. Though the mites are natural ectoparasites of rodents and other animals, in which there is no disease, opportunistic infection to humans gives rise to a serious disease. Known to Japanese physicians as tsutsugamushi (insect disease), human infection is caused by the larvae of trombiculid mites, the fact established by Mataro Nagayo and co-workers established in 1917. The pathogen was discovered by Naosuke Hayashi in 1920. In Mizoram, the disease has been rampant since 2011. This paper summarises available data on the prevalence of the infection in different districts base on collective information from various sources. Records between 2012 and 2018 show that over a thousand people had been infected and 35 people had died of the disease.

Comparison of single and double entry twin cup dosimeter in measuring indoor radon and thoron concentration in Mizoram, India

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Indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been measured using solid state nuclear track detector (LR-115 type-ІІ) based twin cup dosimeter with single and double entry deployed side by side. The measurements have been carried out in 50 dwellings of 8 different villages/towns situated in Saiha and Lawngtlai districts, Mizoram. Dwellings were selected primarily from the gamma level measured using Micro-R survey meter and the construction type of the building. The average concentrations of radon and thoron were found to be 75.76 Bq/m3 and 96.50 Bq/m3 for single entry dosimeter and 63.47 Bq/m3 and 19.79 Bq/m3 for double entry dosimeter. The single entry dosimeter was found to give more reliable observations than that of double entry in terms of trends of seasonal data and also on the theory behind the manufacturing qualities.

Estimation of cholesterol in different edible oils found in Mizoram

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The study was performed to investigate the quantity of cholesterol level in the commonly consumed fats and oils in Mizoram, and further assessed, whether or not it is of risk to coronary heart diseases (CHD). Samples collected include mustard oil (Vimal), butter (Amul), dalda (Vanaspati), ghee (Amul and Vanaspati), refined oil (Best Choice, Dhara, Nutrela, and Gokul), coconut oil (Parachute), olive oil and palm oil. Performing the experiment gives a result where palm oil was found to contain highest level i.e. 804.5 mg/L and coconut oil (Parachute) has the lowest i.e. 179 mg/L. Daily requirements of cholesterol is estimated to be approximately 300 mg per day and thus showing the tested samples to be safe for human consumptions but however limit use of edible oils is recommended for safety measures for high risk individual.

Effect of seasonal variation on soil enzymes activity and fertility of soil in paddy fields of North Vanlaiphai, Mizoram, India

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For sustainability in agricultural productions, familiarity of soil quality and manual improvement to create the best possible growing environment for plants are extremely important. In this study the quality of soil of a paddy field in North Vanlaiphai was investigated with respect to the change in seasons throughout the year. A total of five (5) soil samples were selected from various places of the paddy field, and soil fertility indicators such as pH, total soil nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (Pav), exchangeable potassium (Kex), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil organic matter (SOM) and soil enzymes viz. dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease were analyzed using standard protocols. All the parameters except available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were found to be highest during rainy season whereas lowest in summer.

Estimation of current population mean using two-occasion successive sampling with one auxiliary variable

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In this study, two-occasion successive sampling for ratio-to-regression estimator was used to determine the current estimate of the population mean using only the matched part and one auxiliary variable, which is available on both the occasions. The data used were based on the total number of female workers in villages in Mizoram with the total number of literate female in villages in Mizoram as an auxiliary variables. The data were gotten from Census of India 2001 and 2011. The optimum mean square error of the combined ratio-to-regression and ratio estimator has been compared with (i) the optimum mean square error of the chain-type ratio estimator (ii) mean per unit estimator and (iii) combined estimator when no auxiliary information is used at any occasion. This result showed that the combined ratio-to-regression and ratio estimator is more efficient than the other three existing estimators.

Sightings of chestnut-flanked white-eye Zosterops erythropleurus: First report from Mizoram, India

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In this paper we report the first confirmed sighting of chestnut-flanked white-eye Zosterops erythropleurus (Swinhoe, 1863) from Mizoram and first photographic report from India. chestnut-flanked white-eye belongs to the family Zosteropidae and is a resident of Cambodia, China, Hongkong, Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam. In the Indian Sub-continent this is the only sighting report for this species and details of sightings and habitat are discussed.